The Fun Bits Of History You Don't Know About CELTS AND

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It fits you too well,'' he ended between his teeth. ``You take pleasure in tormenting yourself,'' she remonstrated, suddenly placated: ``and I would be sorry for you if I didn't think it's the mere revolt of your pride. The intricate culture associated with civilization has a tendency to spread to and influence other cultures, sometimes assimilating them into the civilization (a classic example being Chinese civilization and its influence on Korea, Japan, Vietnam and so forth, all of them sharing the fact that they belong to an East Asian civilization, sharing Confucianism, Mahayana Buddhism, a "Mandarin" class an educated understanding of Chinese ideograms and much else).

Legacy of Mesoamerica History and Culture of a Native

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It was translated and published in Sicily in 1279 A. The important idea here is that it is not an isolated city, a trade route, or a pilgrimmage site. The post-Cold era was supposed to mark the triumph of American capitalism and its hegemonic role in the world – hyperpuissance as some French analysts labeled the US to describe its comprehensive superpower status. Passing through the country of the Basques in northwest Spain, they invaded Gaul.

The History of Napoleon Buonaparte

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There could be no doubt about it; but she addressed him unexpectedly. ``As I was saying to you, Don Juan, I have the greatest difficulty in getting myself, I won't say understood, but simply believed.'' No pose of detachment could avail against the warm waves of that voice. She didn't move her eyes, not even after I had added after waiting for a while, I had a momentary suspicion that I had said something stupid. These buildings were more community centres than religious structures.

The Babylonian Story of the Deluge and the Epic of Gilgamish

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The Marquis of Villarel had of course gone long before. Full faced tattoos or "moko" amongst the Maori tribes was predominantly a male activity. One must make allowance for unexpected paradigm shifts. Tiny Big Planet: Win a game on a Tiny Map. They have helped me a lot for a school project. So, now this visit became one more act of moral relativism. And when they ran off into the hills they were found and killed. In fact, I chummed with you even more than with your brothers.

The Roman Empire: Fall of the West, Survival of the East

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Just as mitochondria were �invented,� somewhere between 1.6 bya and 600 mya a eukaryote ate a cyanobacterium and both survived, and that cyanobacterium became the ancestor of all chloroplasts, which is the photosynthetic organelle in all plants. [108] � As with similar previous events, it appears that it happened only once, and all plants are descended from that unique event. [109] � The invention of the chloroplast quickly led to the first multicellular eukaryotes, algae, which were the first plants.� The first algae fossils are from about 1.2 bya. [110] � Most algae species are not called plants, as they are not descended from that instance when a eukaryote ate a cyanobacterium.� The non-plant algae, such as kelp, also have chloroplasts, from various �envelopment� events when algae chloroplasts were eaten and the grazers and chloroplasts survived. �Below is the general outline of the tree of life today, in which bacteria and archaea combined to make eukaryotic cells, and in which the bacterium enveloped into a protist to make plants, and all complex life developed from protists.� (Source: Wikimedia Commons) A free radical is an atom, molecule, or ion with an unpaired valence electron or an unfilled shell, and thus seeks to capture an electron.� The electron transport chain used to create ATP in a mitochondrion leaks electrons, which creates free radicals, which will take that electron from wherever they can get it.� Aerobic respiration creates some of the most dangerous free radicals, particularly the hydroxyl radical .� The more hydroxyl radicals created, the more damage inflicted on neighboring molecules.� Another free radical created by that electron leakage is superoxide, which can be neutralized by antioxidants, but there is no avoiding the damage produced by the hydroxyl radical. [111] � Tho se kinds of free radicals are called reactive oxygen species (�ROS�).� ROS are not universally deleterious to life processes, but if their production spins out of control, the oxidative stress inflicted by the ROS can cripple biological structures.� ROS damage can cause programmed cell death, called apoptosis, which is a maintenance process for complex life.� Antioxidants are one way that organisms defend against oxidative stress, and vitamin C is a standard antioxidant.� Antioxidants usually serve multiple purposes in cellular chemistry, and antioxidant supplements generally do not work as advertised.� They not only do not target the reactions that might be beneficial to prevent, but they can interfere with reactions that are necessary for life processes.� Antioxidant supplements are blunt instruments that can cause more harm than good. [112] � There is plenty of uncertainty and controversy regarding just how connected the issue may be, but it appears that keeping some DNA at the mitochondria, in order to have more efficient and flexible energy generation, helped lead to the genetic phenomenon known as sexual reproduction .� Bacteria swap DNA in reproduction and have done so since life�s early days, but the process of meiosis, which is when two parent life forms split and recombine their DNA to produce an offspring, is unique to eukaryotes, and that form of reproduction appeared between 1.2 and 1.0 bya.� As w ith other seminal events, it seems that sexual reproduction using meiosis happened once, and all eukaryotes that reproduce sexually are descended from that one instance .� Protists were the first organisms to reproduce sexually .� Again, the dates for these events are rather rough, but if the creation of a chloroplast happened once and the creation of sexual reproduction happened once, then sexual reproduction would have needed to come before the chloroplast, as many plants produce sexually. �If it turns out that the chloroplast really is 1.6 billion years old, then the current date for sexual reproduction would need to be pushed back, or the �sex was invented once� idea would have to be discarded, and biologists would probably decide that the date of sex appearing would need to be pushed back, even without fossil evidence of it.

At Home: A Short History of Private Life

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Its ancient history dates back further than... most and has many periods. Mac hines made human labor less valuable, particularly unskilled labor, which led to these consequences: Children were no longer net assets to parents but net liabilities, so women gave birth to fewer children; Women began to receive education, and their �opportunities� were no longer confined to producing exploitable children. Until 1970, they were unaware of the existence of any people besides themselves.

Selfhood and the Soul: Essays on Ancient Thought and

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Its function is best described in the Prophet's own words, namely that the mosque should be a garden of paradise. A nomadic way of life imposes certain limits on the art forms a culture develops. They share social value between each other. They were guided by the words attributed to the Prophet: “Whoever bringeth the dead land to life? for him is reward therein.” They were pioneers in botany. Votes can be traded for or straight-up bought.

Legends of History: Fun Learning Facts About FIRST WORLD WAR

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Invaded England defeated and killed his rival Harold at the Battle of Hastings and became King. Well, she is gone; but you may be sure that whatever she finds now in life it will not be peace. From the 17th century onward with the rise of Westem European powers and later Russia, the power of the Ottomans began to wane. However different their individual artistic forms may have been, they collected each other’s works, exchanged gifts, and felt that they belonged to the same world.

Old Marshall Town

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They ended up losing those wars anyway, and all that was left was a deadly inflation, a starving population, the rich richer, the poor poorer, and a ruined peasant class. Take shelter in great and noble thoughts, and obtain perfection. You pollute the world with your bad thoughts. In western Iran, in Afghanistan, in northern Mesopotamia, and in Morocco the more atypical and local artistic traditions were more or less affected by the centralized imperial system of Iraq.

Eastern Sunrise, Western Sunset: The Cycle of Civilizations

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This inter glacial period has also witnessed spectacular geophysical events, largely related to ice sheet effects.� The ice sheets of the Northern Hemisphere sequestered an immense volume of water, which lowered sea levels.� When the global ocean rose with melting ice sheets, portions of continents such as Japan and New Guinea became islands.� The land bridge of Beringia slipped beneath the seas and isolated the Western Hemisphere�s aboriginal peoples.� They were not �rediscovered� to any significant degree until Columbus sailed in 1492 .� Near my home in Washington State is one of many stark remnants of the prodigious floods that attended melting ice sheets. �When the obvious evidence of vast floods were linked with ice age melting nearly a century ago, the idea was initially dismissed as crazy speculation, as it conflicted with uniformitarian beliefs of the day .� It is now universally accepted as one of many events when ice dams broke and awesome floods scoured the Northern Hemisphere.� Catastrophists have long invoked celestial explanations for the demise of the mammoth while others have cited glacial floods.� Those buried mammoths that keep appearing as the Arctic melts due to global warming were probably killed in the innumerable floods that attended melting ice sheets, but that is a far cry from driving the species to extinction.� The mo st violent glacial event may have created a global climate change about 12 kya, and the resulting thousand year period is called the Younger Dryas .� The current ice age began in the North Atlantic, and when the Laurentide ice sheet melted, vast floods into the North Atlantic may have reversed Earth�s oceanic circulation and dramatically changed Earth�s climate systems.� If agriculture had developed by then, the Younger Dryas would have created epic famines, wars, and population displacements. �But because few humans were sedentary at that time, that did not happen.� However, that event may have been responsible for humanity�s next Epochal Event: the Domestication Revolution, which is the next chapter�s subject.� As can b e seen with bonobos, economics is the foundation of social organization.� Social animals are social because their survival chances increase when they combine their efforts.� All animal social behaviors are interpreted as strategies toward meeting life�s essential requirements .� How far has human behavior �risen� past those basics?� In this narrative of the journey of life on Earth, where can we draw the line of when the human line became �sentient�?� Are we sentient even now?� That question is not easily answered.� Bonobo females can be brutal in coercing males back in line with their social plan, and chewed-off fingers have been noted.� Although bonobo life was filled with sex and cooperation, social enforcement could be savage.� Hu nter-gatherer social organization is egalitarian, partly because when people carry their only possessions on their backs, there is little opportunity for economic inequality to gain political power.� However, hunter-gatherers have very strict and vigilantly enforced social norms with ancient roots that ensure that level economic and political playing field.� A successful hunter must share his kills with all, and anybody who tries to dominate the band immediately has a coalition formed against him (it is always a male, reflecting that ape heritage), putting him back in line.� If a m an gets too far out of line, there are two fatal punishments.� One is banishment from the band.� The life expectancy of a solitary hunter-gatherer is minimal; banishment is usually a death sentence.� The exile may try to join another band, but that is highly risky, partly because any man banished from his band is going to be suspect.� The second is capital punishment, and to avoid initiating a feud, the band will �hire� kin of the condemned to perform the execution. [585] � Studies of w arfare have shown that absolute population density has little influence on how warlike societies are. [586] � However, the proper way to analyze population density and conflict is probably not in absolute terms, but relative terms.� Hunter-gatherer bands slaughtered each other over access to resources such as waterholes, stone quarries, and salt deposits. [587] � Ancient states of the Fertile Crescent and Mediterranean fought over access to forests, arable lands, and low-energy transportation lanes (usually waterways), and no informed observer thinks that the USA would have invaded Iraq in 2003, after more than a decade of genocidal economic sanctions and helping to bankrupt its own economy by hosting a huge military presence in that region, if the USA was sitting atop enough high- EROI oil to power its economy for centuries.� It is the relative abundance of resources that supports a people�s means of production that largely determines how warlike they are going to be.� Scarcity leads to violence, whether it is a gang of chimps looking for a neighbor to murder or history�s richest and most powerful nation invading peoples half a planet away to steal their energy resources.� Some nonliterate societies do not engage in warfare.� They are a vanishingly small proportion of the world�s native societies, but almost without exception, they are not warlike because they are geographically isolated.� T he most important variable in predicting a society�s level of internal and external violence is male dominance.� Monkeys are matrilocal (matrilineal), and males leave their society of birth to mate, gorillas and chimps are patrilocal (patrilineal), where females leave their natal society to mate, and humans have both kinds of pre-state societies, along with some minor variations .� Patrilocal societies are run by gangs of related men, are by far the most violent, engage in the most warfare, and women are subjected to the most violence.� Patrilocal societies can also have harems or many �wives� for the alpha males. [588] � Patrilocal societies make up nearly 70% of the world�s native cultures that have been documented.� Neanderthals and australopiths appear to have been patrilocal .� The primary determinant of patrilocal or matrilocal residence in humans is the economic contribution of women.� In general, where gathering and horticulture brought in more calories than hunting, women had more influence and the society tended to become matrilocal.� Those relationships only hold for societies that are not economically centralized.� Wh en surplus redistribution appeared, men began to dominate, and the chiefdom was the first step toward state formation. [589] � Organized violence only began increasing as states began to form.
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